Born in 1928 in Karoti, a village located in the eastern part of the Evros Prefecture of Thrace. While still in school, he was taught Byzantine music, first by his father and later by the professor Michalis Kefalokoptis. In 1950, he came to live in Athens with his parents, where he completed his studies in Byzantine music at the Hellenic Conservatory. In the same year, he was hired at the Sismanogleion Hospital, where he worked as an accountant until his retirement in 1988.
In 1953 he met the folklore scientist Polydoros Papachristodoulou who proposed him to participate in his radio show entitled 'Echoes from Thrace', presenting for the first time the musical treasure of his fatherland. He participated as a soloist in a radio broadcast with the choir and orchestra of Pantelis Kavakopoulos as well as in the choir of Simon Karas, and in 1957 he started his own weekly radio show.
His rich discography of approximately 450 songs of Thrace includes the albums T’ Aidonia tis Anatolis (with George Ntalaras and Ross Daly, 1990), Tragoudia kai skopoi tis Thrakis (1993), Otan oi Dromoi Synantiountai (where he recorded Byzantine hymns with his student and collaborator Nektaria Karantzi, 2004). He has also taken part in hundreds of musical events in Greece and abroad, and has collaborated with many important artists. In 2004 he sang at the Olympic Games’ closing ceremony in Athens.
He has taught in conservatories and institutes. Moreover, the teaches at the Workshop for Traditional Music in Alexandroupoli, of which he is also the artistic director. Artistic director of the Center for the study of the Musical Tradition of Thrace, Asia Minor and Euxeinos Pontos, honorary president of the 'Music-Folklore Tradition Archive: Chronis Aidonidis' and one of the founding members of the 'Greek Music Archive' as well as of the 'Greek collecting society for singers – interpreters: Erato'.
For his contribution to the Greek culture he has been honoured by many Greek and foreign organisations. The Evros Prefecture has declared the year 2009 as the 'Year of Chronis Aidonidis' and has organised in his honour a gala and various musical events in Evros.